Archivio della Società romana di storia patria vol. 145 (2022) in formato E-BOOK
sezione tematica: tempi di epidemie
Irene Fosi, Premessa
Alexis Gauvain, Epidemie a Roma nel ’400 e nel primo ’500
Rocco Borgognoni, Roma, Atene e il «salutare flagello». L’antichità nel «Ragionamento» all’Italia di Ludovico Agostini
Gabriele Quaranta, La perduta chiesa extramuranea di San Sebastiano a Zagarolo: modulazioni dei culti anti-pestilenziali alle porte di Roma in età moderna
Alessia Ceccarelli, «La salute di Roma e la gloria del Papa»: la peste del 1656-57 nei dispacci di Palazzo Venezia
Vincenzo G. Pacifici, Le epidemie di colera nel XIX sec. a Roma e nell’area tiburtina
Martine Boiteux, Ex-voto et pestes romaines XVe-XIXe siècle
Stefano Andretta, Note a margine su storia, ambiente e tempi di epidemie
Laura Gigli, Scipione Borghese e la decorazione pittorica delle navate della Basilica di San Crisogono
Maria Barbara Guerrieri Borsoi, La costruzione e decorazione della chiesa di S. Maria Assunta a Rocca di Papa
nel XVIII secolo
Tersilio Leggio, Monachesimo e organizzazione dei territori
Marco Ciocchetti, A proposito di La papessa Giovanna. I testi della leggenda (1250-1500), di Agostino Paravicini Bagliani
Periodici pervenuti alla Società, a cura di Francesca Pardini
Pubblicazioni pervenute alla Società, a cura di Francesca Pardini
Atti della Società
Epidemie a Roma nel ‘400 e nel primo ‘500
Between the beginning of the 15th century and the first quarter of the 16th century the city of Rome grew significantly, both demographically and economically. Yet this long period was marred by a series of epidemic events, which represented an obstacle to growth. The author quickly reviews the epidemics that hit Rome in that period, providing references to narrative and archival sources. He offers some brief reflections on the perception of the plague by the Romans (who seem to be suspended between devotion and superstition, between the desire to escape and to trust in improbable antidotes), looking for their self-expression in both published and unpublished sources, and presents common opinions on the origins, causes and modes of contagion, as well as on prevention and possible solutions. The article concludes with a reflection on the theme of public gratitude towards those who sacrified themselves or their eco nomic interests for the good of all.
Roma, Atene e il «salutare flagello». L’antichità nel «ragionamento» All’Italia di Ludovico Agostini
The unpublished “Christian reasoning” All’Italia, written by Ludovico Agostini from Pesaro (1536-1612) in a critical phase of his life, arose from his immediate consideration of the plague of 1575-1577. Affect- ed by the religious atmosphere of the Counter-reformation, the author explained the epidemics which had broken out in Italian history as di- vine punishment for the sins committed by its people. The text is char- acterized by the significant role played by antiquity, especially Roman antiquity. Antiquity, which Ludovico knew primarily from secondary sources, was first of all the pagan world, as opposed to medieval and early modern Christianity, on which the true faith prevailed and whose political heir and replacement was Papal Rome. At the same time, antiq- uity became a moral model embodied by the behaviour of its great men and the values of its entire society, as well as a patrimony of wisdom delineated by the main classical authors. This contemporary attraction to antiquity induced Agostini to suggest the allegorical transposition of Greek and Roman practices as remedies against the plague, while he also recognized the early realization of the positive principles of charity and hospitality drawn from those ancient practices in the Jubilee cele- brated by Pope Gregory XIII in 1575.
La perduta chiesa extramuranea di San Sebastiano a Zagarolo: modulazioni dei culti anti-pestilenziali alle porte di Roma in Età Moderna
The church of San Sebastiano in Zagarolo, near Rome, was the seat of the local cult against pestilence. Located just outside the city walls, the church was completely destroyed in the late 19th century. Likely originating as a roadside shrine, after several decades of neglect and dis- continuous use, it was restored and newly decorated during the plague of 1656. The story of this church is an outstanding case study of cults against pestilence in the Roman “Campagna”, shedding light on their mutability, enrichments, temporary decreases, and progressive aban- donment. In particular, the essay emphasizes the relationships between old and recent popular traditions (St. Sebastian and St. Roch, St. Rosa- lie) and seigniorial interventions. In fact, the Ludovisi family, dukes of Zagarolo, used the restoration of the church to promote the cult of saints canonized by Pope Gregory XV – Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Avila, Francis Xavier – as effective new patrons against the plague.
«La salute di Roma e la gloria del Papa»: la peste del 1656-57 nei dispacci di Palazzo Venezia
The article examines the plague-diplomacy nexus in relation to events occurring in and around Palazzo Venezia, the oldest embassy in Rome, during the Roman Plague of 1658-1657. As pope Alexander VII Chigi (1655-1667) struggled to keep the epidemic in check, Venetian cardinals Marcantonio Bragadin, Pietro Ottoboni, and Cristoforo Vidman sought to minimize the situation. Palazzo Venezia itself became a hotspot of infection in August 1656 when ambassador Girolamo Giustinian caught the plague, was confined to his quarters and eventually died. Meanwhile, the Congregazione di Sanità (Rome’s emergency unit during the health crisis) placed Palazzo Venezia under quarantine and ordered that it be guarded by soldiers. The worsening of the epidemic could have irrep- arably compromised the image of the Pope (la gloria del Papa) in the same way that the death of Giustinian gravely damaged the reputation of la Serenissima.
Le epidemie di colera nel XIX secolo a Roma e nell’area tiburtina
Vincenzo G. Pacifici
The papers housed in the Tivoli Municipal Archives provide an in- formed guide to the probles of hygiene and epidemics, particularly chol- era (1823 – 1855). Government bodies adopted twin strategies of de- nunciations and proactive measures to preserve hygiene and to contain the contagion. The Archives preserve news and evidence of the most dramatic and tragic moments experienced by Tivoli and its surrounding territory during those years. Contemporary studies also offer informa- tion and news indispensable for the reconstruction of facts, circumstanc- es and events.
Ex voto et pestes romaines XVe-XIXe siècle
The article proposes a study of visual communication and the creation of memory through rites and ex-voto works of art provoked by the plague epidemics in Rome in the modern period. This analysis of the power of images emphasizes the eloquence of the symbolic image that acts: of- fering gratitude for the end of the plague and seeking to affect the future through the intercession of the invoked saint.
It relies on a corpus developed through a survey of a sample of Roman churches — San Pietro in Vincoli, San Biagio and San Carlo ai Cati- nari, San Rocco all’Augusteo, Sant’Ambrogio e San Carlo al Corso, Sant’Andrea delle Fratte, Santa Maria in Campitelli, San Marcello al Corso, Santa Maria della Concezione dei Capuccini, and Santa Maria del Carmine alle Tre Cannelle — in search of works by Guido Reni, Nicolas Poussin, Antoniazzo Romano, Giacinto Brandi, Francesco Coz- za, Pietro da Cortona, and Carlo Rainaldi, and of objects used during the epidemics. The work of art becomes heritage.
Note a margine su storia, ambiente e tempi di epidemie
The article is addressed at the early modern era, placing its natural en- vironment and the development of historical studies in relation to the expansion of known geo-historical space, biological interaction, climate change and natural disasters, mentalities, and epidemics in order to ar- rive at a new definition of the term “environment”. This approach offers the basis for a rereading of the great plague epidemics, first distinguish- ing two environments: one urban and the other outside the cities. The Italian examples of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially the Roman Plague of 1656-1657, offer the possibility of a useful com- parison with the present and encourage an interdisciplinary historical method.
Scipione Borghese e la decorazione pittorica delle navate della Basilica di San Crisogono
This study examines the subject matter and iconography of the paintings added in 1624 to the side aisles of San Crisogono as part of the second campaign of restorations promoted by Scipione Borghese, titular cardi- nal of the basilica. Conceived as altarpieces, albeit without Eucharistic tables, and and alsways described as such, the paintings celebrate the saints according to Catholic orthodoxy as prescribed in the Council of Trent – be they martyrs, protectors of the Order, newly canonized saints, or protector angels. The paintings’ realization under the direction of Gi- useppe Cesari, the Cavalier d’Arpino, was entrusted to artists closely connected to the entourage of the Borghese family, chosen among those considered most suitable to express, in the style of late Mannerism, the rigor of thought underlying the doctrine.
La costruzione e decorazione della chiesa di S. Maria Assunta a Rocca di Papa nel XVIII secolo
Maria Barbara Guerrieri Borsoi
In the 18th century the Church of the Assunta in Rocca di Papa was built and decorated, starting from a building that had just begun in the previous century. The article reconstructs these events based on many new documentary sources and a accurate analysis of the still existing works. Although the church was in a peripheral position, the powerful Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, bishop of the diocese of Frascati, granted his protection; so the church was designed by his architects Pietro Passalacqua and Domenico Gregorini, and was partly built by two important Roman master builders. A plan relating to the nineteenth-century reconstruction, allows us to better understand the structure in the eighteenth century. The building was decorated with paintings in part from the destroyed church of S. Maria degli Angeli and in part with paintings specially executed, among which the famous Assumption of Corrado Giaquinto.
Monachesimo e organizzazione dei territori
Monasticism is a complex phenomenon that profoundly marked the po- litical, economic and social development of Latium since the early Mid- dle Ages, one that shows such different particularities from area to area that it is more proper to speak of ‘monasticisms’ in the plural. Alongside the great abbeys of Farfa, Montecassino and Subiaco, we find the pres- ence of innumerable monasteries of smaller size and more contained ambitions, but which nevertheless played a central role in the organiza- tion of space and in the control of the population at the local level. While there have been countless essays and specialized papers dedicated to individual institutions, which give us a picture that is useful, if highly fragmented and of varying depth, there have been few comprehensive studies on the phenomenon using a comparative method. Monasticism in Latium constitutes an inexhaustible topic with countless particulari- ties and unequal historiographical paths, but of extraordinary interest, such that it has held the focus of many researchers and will continue to do so in the future.
A proposito di La papessa Giovanna. I testi della leggenda (1250-1500), di Agostino Paravicini Bagliani
No legend linked to the papacy enjoys such an enduring fame as that of Pope Joan, probably due largely to its general lack of biographical or historical foundation. It is a veritable myth that has been consolidated over time and has gained more and more traction. Agostino Paravicini Bagliani’s latest effort offers an ambitious analysis of this myth through a meticulous critique of its literary tradition. After a careful reading, I have attempted to provide an extensive review, offering some reflections in the final section.
gennaio 2023, pp. 356